Please note that  the below reference list is for all the previous posts.



Online or cyber culture is something that has emerged very rapidly into the world. Once the Internet was linked and people were able to connect to cyberspace there was no stopping online culture.

Within online culture there are many subcultures that can be identified. I belong to the ‘text’ culture of the Internet which allows people to be in contact with other people twenty four hours a day. The implications of this is that I am constantly feeling the need to check my phone or laptop to see if there is any messages that I need to attend to, instead of focusing on the people around me and interacting with them.

Another culture that has emerged from online culture is the ‘culture’ of illegally downloading movies, music and books. Due to easy access millions of people in the world download these things and never pay the artist, actors, authors and editors that take time and money to produce this. This is a very common culture and almost any teenager and young adult has been a part of this.

This is where ethical issues are prevalent in online culture. If these products were not so easily accessible, people would be forced to pay for them, and most people are very aware of this. The ethical issue is whether or not to download the products for free or to pay for them.

Another way of describing this issue is if a child is in a shopping centre and is told that they may leave with the toy that they want for free, no consequences for them, however the person that created the toy will have to suffer by not being paid. The child will want to pay for the product to help the person who created it, but will be very tempted by the idea of walking away with the toy for free.

Most people in the world will download the music for free and not feel guilty, and this is due to cyber or online culture.


Globalisation is the process whereby all the cultures of the world merge together to become one unified culture. This process has been sped up through mass media.

I have responded to globalisation by ensuring that I do not allow other people, of my own culture or otherwise, affect my belief system. No matter what is told to me by other people, or the new trend of “atheism”, I will always remain Christian. There are many people who have converted from the religion they were born into, into something else that they have discovered through their lives. This is not a negative thing and people should be able to make their own choices but globalisation seems to push people into believing in more scientific descriptions of how the earth was created and less into having a faith. I truly believe that having a faith, whatever faith it is, is beneficial to a person’s life.

I have also responded to globalisation by ensuring, when I can, that I buy local products. This not only slows down the process of global convergence and globalisation but also helps the South African economy.  It is important to maintain the South African economy as many of the products and services offered in the country are from other countries and do not possess the same heritage as those products made here. This concept is the same for every country. All countries people should try their hardest to purchase products and services made in that country as this will slow down globalisation and maintain the culture and heritage that is so important to every country.




Source: Vogue. 2015

Taylor Swift is an American singer who has won numerous awards for her music. She is world famous and idolised by many. The image above is a snapshot from her music video Bad Blood 2014.


In the image Taylor Swifts ‘squad’ or group of friends is shown. This is one of the ideologies that Swift holds. She is known for being surrounded by family and friends. This is an ideology that is desired by most people.


One of the most appealing aspects or ideologies held by Swift is her immense fame. People look up to her and wish to be her as they desire being famous. People want to be known, and Swift has managed to make herself known.


There is not a person in the world that does not, to some degree, want to be wealthy. Swift embodies a wealthy, young, and seemingly happy person. Forbes (2016) estimated Swifts worth to be $250 million (International Business Times. 2016).


Being twenty-six years old, Swift embodies the ideal age and body type of most women. The majority of cultures on the earth desire youth, it is seen as the ideal stage of life.


Many women idolise Swift as she has the ‘ideal’ body type that is praised in today’s society. She is tall and has a small frame. She body is skinny. This is desired by media today.


The image above is used as a visual representation of most of the arguments stated in this section.

  1. Friends: In the music video ‘Bad Blood’, swift included her closest friends. The image depicts half of the women in the video and shows how Swift has a large variety of people in her ‘squad’.
  2. Fame: The image is taken from her music video for ‘Bad Blood’ which was seen on Youtube over 960 387 534 views (Youtube. 2016). This shows how famous Swift is.
  3. Youth: All the women in the picture above are at the ‘ideal’ age for media today. All the women are below 30 years of age.
  4. Body Type: In the image above Swifts body type is put on display. The majority of women in the world wish to look like her.


FILM – INTO THE WOODS (Rob Marshal) 

Into The Woods is a 2015 movie that puts together various fairy-tails to make a complete story. The fairy-tales used to make the plot of this movie include:

  • Cinderella (Anna Kendrick)
  • The Baker (James Cordon)
  • Little Red Riding Hood (Lilla Crawford)
  • Jack and the Beanstalk (Daniel Huttlestone)
  • Rapunzel (MacKenzie Mauzy)

Other actors in the film include:

  • Meryl Streep (The Witch)
  • Emily Blunt (The Bakers Wife)
  • Johnny Depp (Big Bad Wolf)
  • Chris Pine (The Prince)
  • Tracey Ullman (Jack’s Mother)
  • Billy Magnussen (Rapunzel’s prince)
  • Christine Baranski (Stepmother)

The film begins with a quick shot of each of the main characters singing for what they most wish for. Once this is over the viewer is shown a scene that include The Witch (Streep) telling the Bakers (Cordon and Blunt) that if they are to get her certain items, then she will lift the curse that has been put on their family that prevents them from having children.

The aspects of the film that will be used for analysis include the

  • Title of the movie;
  • An analysis of the music
  • Choice of characters
  • And overall movie success


The title of the film is very appropriate as the main song of the film is “Into the Woods” and each of the characters needs to venture into the woods in order to complete their mission of the film.

The title also implies some mystery to the film. This is very appropriate as within the film there is a sense of darkness and mystery.

The ‘woods’ may also be referring to the fears within each character. The characters in the film are all required to face a fear they have to complete their mission, or the reason that they venture into the woods.

Below is a list of the various fears of the main characters that the title of the movie may be referring to:

  • Cinderella (Anna Kendrick) – Being an orphan her whole life and not finding her true love (The Prince)
  • The Baker (James Cordon) – Not being able to have the curse placed on his family lifted and being able to give his wife a child
  • Jack and the Beanstalk (Daniel Huttlestone) – Losing his best friend ‘Milky White’, the cow
  • Rapunzel (MacKenzie Mauzy) – Never being able to leave the tower and travel the world and meet people
  • Meryl Streep (The Witch) – Losing the child that she stole from the Bakers parents, her only reason for living
  • Emily Blunt (The Bakers Wife) – Being stuck in a regular life and not feeling like a princess


Into the Woods (2015) is a musical and each song is placed within the scene at the appropriate time to show the viewer how a character is feeling and what their plan for the rest of the film will be.

There are various other songs used throughout the movie that indicate the emotions and the intensions of each character.

Below is a list of the songs used in the movie to direct the emotions of the audience, to either feel in favour of a character or against a character or situation:

Prologue: Into The Woods Company (Into The Woods Cast)
Cinderella at the Grave Joanna Riding
Hello, Little Girl Johnny Depp, Lilla Crawford
I Know Things Now Lilla Crawford
A Very Nice Prince Anna Kendrick, Emily Blunt
Giants in the Sky Daniel Huttlestone
Agony Billy Magnussen, Chris Pine
It Takes Two Emily Blunt, James Crawford
Stay With Me Meryl Streep
On the Steps of the Palace Anna Kendrick
Careful My Toe Christine Baranski, Lucy Punch
Ever After Stephen Sondheim
Witch’s Lament Meryl Streep
Any Moment Emily Blunt, Chris Pine
Moments in the Woods Emily Blunt
Your Fault Anna Kendrick, James Cordon, Meryl Streep
Last Midnight Meryl Streep
No One is Alone Anna Kendrick, James Cordon, Lilla Crawford
Finale/Children Will Listen (Part 1) Emily Blunt, James Cordon, Meryl Streep
Finale/Children Will Listen (Part 2) Company (Into The Woods Cast)

All music and lyrics were written by Stephen Sondheim.

The theme song of the movie plays at the very beginning and forms a perfect introduction of the main characters for the movie. Through this first song it is clear what each character desires to happen in their lives.

Below is a list of the desires of each character, as identified by the theme song ‘Into the Woods’:

  • Cinderella: To go to the festival that the King is holding for the Prince to select a bride to be his princess
  • Jack: His cow would give milk and he would not have to give her away
  • Baker and Wife: To have a child
  • Little Red Riding Hood: To take her granny in the woods some bread and treats


Over all the movie was a success, becoming a Disney “holiday hit” for 2015 (The Wrap. 2015). Through the use of cinematography, music and a star filled cast, the movie went on to win the MTV Movie Award for Best Villain, the Motion Pictures Award for Best Cast  and the Costume Designers Guide Award for Excellence in Fantasy Film (Google. 2015).



Source: The Housewife Modern. 2015            Source: The Housewife Modern. 2015. (Edited:                                                                                                   29/09/2016)

 The image that has been selected for this section is an advertisement with a sexist statement implying that woman belongs at the foot of a man. The caption itself implies that the woman should always be at a man’s foot; however the image is much more powerful. The image shows a woman looking lovingly at a shoe, which is a male shoe. This image is more powerful than the caption as it is implying that woman not only enjoy being at the foot of a man but desire to be.

The woman staring longingly at the shoe is naked. This brings an element of sexuality into the advertisement and aids the description. From the fact that the woman is naked it can be assumed that the creators of this advertisement are not only saying that a woman belongs at a man’s foot, but must also be ready for sexual activity whenever he is. This image makes woman look helpless and men look like powerful beings.

I have changed the caption of the image to query if the males developing this know where a woman belongs as well as whether or not they are aware of the power a woman has.



Source: Ozmoz. 2016


Through this essay it will be identified how organisations, in the instance Gucci, uses semiotic images to enhance the quality of their advertisements and ultimately sell products and services to make a profit.

The print advertisement that will be used for this analysis is an advertisement by Gucci for their ‘Pour Homme’ fragrance for men. The advertisement, featured above, depicts two presumably naked people, very close together.

A semiotic analysis is an analysis of the aspects of communication, such as body language, symbols and other aspects, that communicate something of their own within the context of the main communication ( 2016)

Each of the following sections will discuss a different aspect of the advertisement.



POSITION: The male in the advertisement shows a dominant position over the woman through the way he is above her, as well as behind her. This gives the impression that she is at his command and he controls her. This implies that if a man is to use this fragrance he will be able to control or dominate a woman.

NAKED BODIES: The fact that there seems to be no clothing between the male and the female seems to imply that there may be sexual activity occurring. This is reinforced through the facial expression of the woman. This implies that if the fragrance is to be used, the man using it will be more sexually desired by woman.

FACIAL EXPRESSION: The man’s facial expression shows one of guilt and pleasure. This works in correlation with the idea that the fragrance is “guilty” of something. This implies that if a man uses this fragrance he can get away with more than what he would get away with if he were not wearing the fragrance.

RED LIPSTICK: The woman has red lips, which implies sexuality, passion and danger. This makes the woman more desirable. This implies to the male reading the advertisement that if he were to wear the fragrance he would attract more attractive and desirable woman.


TYPEFACE: All the typing in this advertisement is in the same font, which creates uniformity through-out the advertisement. This creates a sense of danger and mystery, as if the people in the advertisement are in control of their surroundings. This is a desirable state for humans and will influence men who wish to be more organised and in control to buy the fragrance.

BACKGROUND: The solid black background provides mystery to the advertisement as well as a sense of power. This would not influence people to purchase the product but instead aids the idea of guilt within the image.


The Gucci advertisement is very effective in creating a sense of mystery and the idea of guilt and sexuality of this product. This advertisement did not over complicate its text or imagery and this worked in its favour.

Through reinforcing each aspect, such as guilt, by using another aspect, led to the advertisement being highly appropriate and successful.



Tab 2: Baby In A Mug


Source: Mommy Shorts: Yawning Babe In a Mug. 2014

This image was taken as a part of a website project. The website depicts all sorts of images where it seems as if people or objects are coming out of a mug. The image is adorable and the baby looks incredibly peaceful, sleeping comfortably on a warm blanket in a warm baby grow.

However, it may not be as it is depicted to be. Images like this do not occur on the first try and the photographer must have taken dozens of photos to get the right angle and lighting. The image may even be retouched, it is unclear.

Any one that has ever had a child or work with children know that they are difficult to work with, and even cooperate with. This image may not have happened easily and there will definitely be a back story.

Getting a child to sleep in a certain position is almost impossible and the photographer would have had to wait for the perfect moment. The child may look happy and peaceful, however that may be untrue. This image may have been taken slightly before the child woke up hungry or wet, and needed care and attention.

Every single photograph ever taken has a backstory and information. This is not always clear in the photo and the photographer may not want it to be clear.


TAB 1: The Human Chariot


Source: Authors Private Collection. 2014

Depicted in the image above is matric dance entrance. In the image it is clear that the boys are walking down the road with ease and everyone has smiles on their faces. This image is of a light-hearted event that will bring about laughter for those who were at the event and those that view the photos. Most people viewing the image would not think more of it than that.

However, being part of the event myself I can clarify that this was not a light-hearted event and in fact caused much stress and anxiety. The girl in the picture was one of my closest friends and had her matric dance completely organised except for her entrance. She approached my for help the day before the event and I had to organise the cart, the boys and the decorations.

Although the couple in the back look happy and relaxed, they are in fact very uncomfortable, being squashed into a cart designed for two small children, with a handle in the middle of the cart.

There was much tension when the boys arrived to pull the cart as the date of my friend, the boy in the cart, felt insecure as the focus of the entrance was no longer on the two entering the dance but instead on the shirtless males walking through an all-girls high school.

The final incorrect assumption about this image is that the males pulling the cart were doing it with ease. This is not true, as straight after this photo was taken the boys needed to pull the cart up a hill and over a set of speed-bumps, all while smiling for the camera.